anne-richard
» » Crime and Human Nature

Download Crime and Human Nature epub

by James Q. Wilson




Assembling the latest evidence from the fields of sociology, criminology, economics, medicine, biology, and psychology and exploring the effects of such factors as gender, age, race, and family, two eminent social scientists frame a groundbreaking theoryof criminal behavior
Download Crime and Human Nature epub
ISBN: 0671541307
ISBN13: 978-0671541309
Category: Other
Subcategory: Social Sciences
Author: James Q. Wilson
Language: English
Publisher: Simon & Schuster; First Edition edition (August 1, 1985)
Pages: 639 pages
ePUB size: 1364 kb
FB2 size: 1387 kb
Rating: 4.4
Votes: 431
Other Formats: mobi rtf lrf azw

Oppebro
Many books on criminology bog down in confusion over definitions. The authors, both Harvard professors, describe their work as attempting to explain "not the behavior of 'society' but the behavior of individuals making up a society." Accordingly, it does not split hairs over whether "crime" is merely "any act committed in violation of a law that prohibits it and authorizes punishment for its commitment". They go to the heart of crime, as committed by human beings in a violent manner... "chiefly refer to aggressive, violent, r larcenous behavior; they will be for the most part, about persons who hit, rapport, murder, steal and threaten." In our own time, headlines and police blotters are increasingly filled with violence of extraordinary import and monstrosity. An infant in a stroller is casually shot dead when his mother does not have money to give to a youthful thief. A ten year old boy is thrown off the roof of a Chicago project tower when his mother refuses to pay "protection money" to a resident gang of youthful gangsters. Statistics of violent murder and mayhem in inner cities like Chicago, many by young gangsters with guns in a city that bans guns, puzzles our minds. Things should not go this badly. We look to more responsibility of parents, teachers, communities. And still, violent crime increases. These authors present their findings in a conversational manner, worthy of interesting and spell-binding professors, bent on maintaining the interest of their overburdened students. Their answers are found in a study of human nature, social environment, Factors are considered, from economics to environment, television programming, drugs, and focusing on the young age group of immature and highly emotional younger people who commit most of the violent crimes. How did they get that way? Where did we go wrong? What can be done about it? This book explores and provides answers to those questions. It is a kind of textbook, but is written for people who just want a book they can sit down and read, and absorb the myriad complexities of trying to examine the fragmented puzzle of human behavior. It is friendly and well-written, by people who make their living developing and sharing knowledge, and projecting the fascinating part of behavioral research. It is full of surprises, and interesting observations that you can put in your pocket. I recommend it to anyone interested in Crime in America, and definitely for anyone entering law enforcement as a profession. Criminology is a lifetime study. I turned to Amazon for the widest selection of books on he subject. This is one of the best, and the most readable. It not only studies the problem but reaches conclusions, which then become very handy one-liners that key the book for lecture notes and further study.
Bu
Herrnstein and Wilson write an excellent, accessible tome. I'd recommend it to anyone interested in the subject matter of crime and human nature, even in light of new criminological data that further corroborates a more hereditarian approach than before
Jack
Interesting book and in great shape.
Ranterl
Excellent!
Grotilar
Excellent transaction and book
Jieylau
This met my expectations 100% The book was in phenomenal shape. Good seller
Heri
Predatory street crimes are most commonly committed by young males. Violent crimes are more common in big cities than in small ones. High rates of criminality tend to run in families. The persons who frequently commit the most serious crimes typically begin their criminal careers at a quite young age. Persons who turn out to be criminals usually do not do very well in school. Young men who drive recklessly and have many accidents tend to be similar to those who commit crimes. Programs designed to rehabilitate high-rate offenders have not been shown to have much success.

Criminals are, on average, less bright and have a different set of intellectual strengths and weaknesses than do non-criminals as a group. The typical crimes of less intelligent offenders are often crimes with an immediate pay-off - crimes of violence in which the reward is the damage inflicted on one's antagonist of the moment, or sexual crimes that yield immediate gratification., or minor property crimes occasioned by a target of opportunity, such as a nighttime encounter with a solitary stranger on a quiet city street. Predatory criminals also display little regard for the feelings of others. Low intelligence will favor impulsive crimes with immediate rewards, and high intelligence, the inverse. Clearance rates are lower for the latter.

Another link between intelligence and crime is that a person's level of moral reasoning is correlated with intelligence, especially verbal intelligence.

When non-delinquents were asked to give reasons for disliking school, they often blamed feelings of inadequacy as students. In contrast, the delinquents were likely to resent the school routine or to be bored. Delinquents' vocational hopes included more adventurous occupations, like aviation and going to sea, than non-delinquents. The delinquents misbehaved in school earlier, more often, and more seriously. Delinquents have ben found to be more assertive, unafraid, aggressive, unconventional, extroverted, and poorly socialized. Non-delinquents tend to be more self-controlled, concerned about relations with others, willing to be guided by social standards, and rich in internal feelings like insecurity, helplessness, love (or its lack), and anxiety.

Legal punishment deters psychopaths less than it does others because it is delayed and aversive; aversive stimuli are especially ineffective for psychopaths if they are delayed.

Personality, intelligence, and psychopathologies of various sorts each involve some genetic inheritance. Current estimates place the heritability of intelligence between 50 and 80%, and the heritability of most common dimensions of personality perhaps 20% lower on average. If the predictors of criminal behavior are genetic to some degree, it follows that crime should be too.

Lower-class boys may come to disparage the conventional ethic of success and embrace instead the values of toughness and immediate gratification.

A 'good school' seems to be one that, regardless of its SES composition, is not swamped with low-aptitude students and provides a firm but nurturant environment in its classroom. In the U.S. this appears to be more readily attained in private and Catholic schools than public ones. The benefits of schooling lie in the future - thus, are of less appeal to psychopaths.

Some areas persistently display higher crime rates than others. A test of the possibility that people shape neighborhoods more than neighborhoods shape people was made possible in Great Britain by the fact that the government there has devoted great energy and large sums to relocating persons from decaying inner-city areas to new public housing in outlying areas. - in many large English cities as much as half the housing is publicly managed. Relocating families to new and better housing has not reduced levels of delinquency. In Chicago, delinquency of neighborhoods has changed sharply with changes in racial composition.

The strongest evidence for the influence of peers on a young person's criminality is the fact that most juvenile crime, unlike most adult crime, is committed by persons in groups. However, while group involvement is consistent with the theory of peer influence, it does not prove it. Youth crimes may be committed in groups because young criminals like to associate together, not because the group has had any effect on its members. And offenders acting alone may be responding to rewards (prestige or protection) conferred by peers not present at the time. However, it would defy common sense to think that peers have no influence on youth otherwise disposed to delinquency.

Personal safety in high-crime areas is not produced by reciprocal self-restraint; young men carry weapons and join gangs not simply to prove their manhood or gain a reputation, but also to cope with the problem of safety. Provincialism within those areas means that the value of rewards available from outside sources is lowered. Residents may dream of good jobs, nice homes, and fancy cars, but have little if any reliable information on how to get them and probably do not think they have a realistic chance of getting them. Distant, low-probability reinforcements have a weaker effect on behavior than immediate, high-probability ones. Ethnic/racial cleavages will lead some residents to invert the value normally assigned to the well-being of others.

The more rapid the population turnover in an area, the higher the victimization rate, even after controlling for the racial and age composition of the neighborhoods.